Where is the United States at war? It’s a hard question to answer. Inevitably though, at least in the last four years, this sentence has changed little: American troops are fighting in Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria. But with a steady stream of airstrikes, militant deaths, alleged civilian casualties and two American troops killed in Eastern Africa since 2017, another country has since crept onto the list: Somalia.
And despite documentation that quantifies the Pentagon’s efforts in Somalia, there is no public record of the C.I.A.’s activities in the country, including if it has its own drone program to search for and to kill Shabab militants. But the agency is undoubtedly intertwined with the military’s efforts in the region, according to defense officials, often piggybacking off American outposts and American-backed militias to support their own clandestine activities.
How did we get here? Like most chapters of the United States’ counterterrorism campaign that began in the aftermath of the Sept. 11 attacks, the new war in Somalia started with a small influx of 50 American troops in 2016 and has ballooned to 500, now spread across the country in small outposts and aided by thousands of forces from neighboring African countries including Kenya and Uganda.